The unique approach of the Rust programming language results in better code with fewer compromises than C, C++, Go, and the other languages you probably use. It also gets updated regularly, often every month.
Where to download the latest Rust version
If you already have a previous version of Rust installed via
rustup, you can access the latest version via the following command:
$ rustup update stable
The new features in Rust 1.61
Published May 19, Rust 1.61 highlights custom exit codes from
main. Rust proponents said that in the beginning, Rust
main functions only could return the unit type
() either implicitly or explicitly, indicating success in the exit status, and if developers wanted otherwise, they had to call
process::exit. Since Rust 1.26,
main has been allowed to return a
Ok translated to a C
EXIT_Failure. These alternate return types were unified by an unstable Termination trait. In this release,
Termination trait is stable, along with a more-general
ExitCode type that wraps platform-specific return types. The
Termination trait also can be implemented for a developer’s own types, allowing for customization of reporting before converting to an
Also in Version 1.61:
- Several incremental features have been stabilized to enable more functionality in
const. Developers now can create, pass, and cast function pointers in a
const fn, which could be useful to build compile-time function tables for an interpreter. But it is still not permitted to call
fnpointers. Developers also now can write trait bounds on generic parameters to
const fn, such as
T: Copy, where previously only
Sizedwas permitted. Also,
const fnnow can deal with trait objects, whereas arguments and return values for
const fncan be opaque
- APIs have been stabilized such as
- Previously, the creation of locked handles to
stdin/stdlout/stderrwould borrow the handles being locked, which prevented writing
let out = std::io::stdout().lock();because
outwould outlive the return value of
stdout(). This code now works, eliminating a common pitfall affecting many Rust users.
The new features in Rust 1.60.0
Rust 1.60, introduced April 7, 2022, stabilizes support for LLVM-based coverage instrumentation in
rustc. This provides for source-based code coverage. Developers can try this out by rebuilding their code with
-Cinstrument-coverage. Afterward, running the resulting binary will produce a default.profraw file in the current directory.
llvm-tools-preview component includes
llvm-profdata for processing and merging raw profile output,
llvm-profdata for processing raw file output, and
llvm-cov for report generation. Baseline functionality is stable and will exist in all future Rust releases, but the specific output format and LLVM tools that produce it are subject to change. Developers should use the same version for both
llvm-tools-preview and the
rustc binary used to compile code.
Rust 1.60 also re-enables incremental compilation. The Rust team continues to work on fixing bugs in incremental but no problems causing widespread breakage are known at this time.
Also in Rust 1.60:
- On all platforms,
Instantwill try to use an operating system API that guarantees monotonic behavior if available. In practice, such guarantees are, under rare circumstances, broken by hardware, virtualization, or operating system bugs. To work around these bugs, and to work with platforms that lack monotonic clocks,
Instant::subnow saturate to zero. In older versions of Rust, this led to a panic, instead.
- Cargo has established support for collecting information on build with the
- Namespaced dependencies and weak dependency features have been introduced to improve support for Cargo features and how they interact with optional dependencies. Cargo features provide a mechanism to express conditional compilation and optional dependencies.
- A number of APIs have been stabilized such as
The new features in Rust 1.59.0
Rust 1.59.0 was announced on February 24. A key feature is support for inline assembly, enabling many applications that need very low-level control over execution or access to specialized machine instructions. Assembly language and instructions available with inline assembly vary according to architecture. The capability currently is supported on architectures including x86 and x64, ARM, Risc-V, and AArch64.
Other new features and improvements in Rust 1.59.0:
- Developers now can use slice, tuple, and struct patterns as the left-hand side of an assignment, making assignment more consistent with
letbindings, which already support these patterns.
- Generic types now can specify default values for
- The Cargo package manager now shows warnings when a dependency will be rejected by a future version of Rust.
- For the creation of stripped binaries, cargo and rustc now support stripping when the binary is linked. Rust’s developers said it is often useful to strip unnecessary information like buginfo from binaries that are distributed, making them smaller.
- Incremental compilation is off by default. This mitigates the effect of a known bug that causes deserialization errors. A fix for this bug will be available in the Rust 1.60 beta due in six weeks.
- A number of APIs have been stabilized.
The new features in Rust 1.58.1
This point release arriving January 20, 2022, just days after Rust 1.58, fixes a race condition in the
std::fs::remove_dir_all standard library function. This vulnerability is tracked at CVE-2022-21658 and there was an advisory published. An attacker could use this security issue to trick a privileged program into deleting files and directories that the attacker otherwise could not access or delete. Rust versions 1.0 through 1.58 are affected by this vulnerability. Users are advised to update their toolchains and build programs with the updated compiler.
Rust 1.58.1 also addresses several regressions in diagnostics and tools introduced in Rust 1.58:
non_send_fields_in_send_tyClippy lint was found to have too many false positives and has been moved to the experimental lints group called “nursery”.
useless_formatClippy lint was updated to handle captured identifiers in format strings, introduced in Rust 1.58.
- A regression in
Rustfmtpreventing generated files from being formatted when passed through the standard input has been fixed.
- An incorrect error message displayed by
rustcin some cases has been fixed.
The new features in Rust 1.58
Rust 1.58, announced January 13, features captured identifiers in format strings. With this capability, format strings now can capture arguments by writing
ident in the string. Formats long have accepted positional arguments and named arguments, such as:
println!("Hello, !", get_person()); // implicit position
println!("Hello, 0!", get_person()); // explicit index
println!("Hello, person!", person = get_person()); // named
Now, named arguments also can be captured from the surrounding scope.
Also new in Rust 1.58: On Windows targets,
std::process::Command will no longer search the current directory for executables, which was an effect of the historical behavior of the win32
CreateProcess API. This fixes a situation in which searches could lead to surprising behavior or malicious results when dealing with untrusted directories.
Rust 1.58 also introduces more
#[must_use] in the standard library. The
#[must use] attribute can be applied to types or functions when failing to explicitly consider them or their output is almost certainly a bug. Rust 1.58 also has stabilized APIs such as
The new features in Rust 1.57
Rust 1.57, unveiled December 2, brings
panic! (for terminating a program in an unrecoverable state) to
const contexts. Previously, the
panic! macro was not usable in
const fn and other compile-time contexts. This has now been stabilized. Together with the stabilization of
panic!, several other standard libraries now are usable in
const, such as
assert!. But this stabilization does not yet include the full formatting infrastructure. The
panic! macro must be called with either a static string or a single interpolated value to be used with
. This support is expected to expand in the future.
Other new features and improvements in Rust 1.57:
- Cargo adds support for arbitrarily named profiles.
try_reservehas been stabilized for
VecDeque. This API enables callers to fallibly allocate backing storage for these types.
- Multiple other APIs have been stabilized including
- Macro attributes now may follow
#deriveand will see the original input.
The new features in Rust 1.56
Announced October 21, Rust 1.56 is the first version of the language that supports the Rust 2021 edition. The Rust 2021 edition lets Rust crate authors opt in to breaking language changes that make Rust easier to use and more consistent. Crates can opt in at any time and remain interoperable with crates in older editions. The Rust compiler supports all three editions of the language: 2015, 2018, and 2021.
Other new capabilities in Rust 1.56 include:
- Disjoint capture in closures, to simplify the writing of closures.
- Cargo.toml now supports a
[package] [rust-version]field to specify the minimum supported Rust version for a crate, and Cargo will exit with an early error if that is not satisfied. While this currently does not influence the dependency resolver, the intent is catch compatibility problems before they turn into cryptic compiler errors.
- New bindings in [email protected] are supported. Rust pattern matching can be written with a single identifier that binds the entire value, followed by
@and a more-refined structural pattern, but has not allowed additional bindings in that pattern until now. This functionality had been permitted prior to Rust 1.0, but was removed due to unsoundness. The compiler team now has determined that this pattern is safe and allowable in stable Rust.
- Panic macros now always expect format strings, just like
- A number of APIs have been stabilized including
The new features in Rust 1.55
Announced September 9, 2021, Rust 1.55 offers faster, more correct float parsing. The standard library implementation of float parsing has been updated to use the Eisel-Lemire algorithm, which brings improvements in speed and correctness. Previously, certain edge cases failed to parse, but these have now been fixed.
Also in Rust 1.55:
- The use of open ranges in patterns has been stabilized.
- A number of methods and trait implementations have been stabilized including
- Cargo now deduplicates compiler errors and prints a report at the end of compilation. Previously, when running
cargo check ---all targets, or similar commands that built the same Rust crate in multiple configurations, errors and warnings might show up duplicated as the rustc executions were run in parallel and showed the same warning.
The new features in Rust 1.54
Published July 29, Rust 1.54 supports invoking function-like macros inside attributes. Function-like macros can be macros based on
macro-rules! or they can be procedural macros, which are invoked like
macro!(…). A notable use case is including documentation from other files into Rust doc comments.
Other new features in Rust 1.54:
- A number of instrinsics for wasm32 platform have been stabilized. These give access to SIMD instructions in WebAssembly.
- Incremental compilation is re-enabled by default. It had been disabled by default in Rust 1.52.1. With Rust 1.52, additional validation was added when loading incremental compilation from on-disk cache, resulting in pre-existing potential soundness issues being uncovered as validation changed these silent bugs into internal compiler errors (ICE). Since then, work has been done to resolve these issues, with some fixes landing in Rust 1.53 and the majority landing in Rust 1.54. Remaining issues that could result in ICE are considered rare in practice.
- Multiple methods and trait implementations have been stabilized.
- Compiler output has been improved for debugging enums on Windows MSVC platforms for C++.
Rust 1.54 follows the June 17 release of Rust 1.53, which contained language and library features including the
IntoIterator implementation for arrays.
The new features in Rust 1.52
Introduced May 6, Rust 1.52 was led by an enhancement to tooling support for Clippy, which is a collection of lints to find mistakes and improve Rust code. Previously, running
cargo check followed by
cargo clippy would not actually run Clippy, with the build caching in Cargo not differentiating between the two. This has been fixed in Rust 1.52. Also in version 1.52, the following methods were stabilized: